What is Circadin 2 mg?
Circadin 2 mg are prolonged release white and round tablets that contain 2 mg of melatonin as main ingredient. They are used as therapy to treat insomnia in patients that also suffer poor quality sleep aged over 55 years of age and as therapy for people who travel a lot and suffer from jet lag and have a disrupted circadian rhythm.
What other ingredients or excipients does Circadin 2 mg include?
- Magnesium stearate
- Silica, colloidal anhydrous
- Calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate
- Ammonio methacrylate copolymer type B
- Lactose monohydrate
What is melatonin?
Melatonin is a natural hormone produced in the brain, specifically in the pineal gland in charge of regulating sleep and wakefulness or the circadian rhythm. It is usually secreted after it is dark at night with an elevated peak between 02:00-04:00 hours.
What is the circadian rhythm?
The circadian rhythm or sleep/wake cycle is a 24 hour internal clock that is charge of making you sleepier at nigh and more energetic and awake in the day.
What is Circadin 2 mg mainly used for?
Circadian 2 mg has many useful therapeutic uses in:
- Jet lag: Disorder seen in people who travel to different time zones
- Cancer: As an adjunctive therapy
- Cluster headache: Circadin is also used as conjunctive therapy as prophylaxis or prevention
- Migraine headache: Used in conjunction with people who suffer from sleep disorders.
- Insomnia: Used either for people who have difficulty falling asleep or difficulty maintaining asleep.
- Benzodiazepine withdrawal: Used mostly in patients older tan 55 years of age who have sleep disorders or trouble sleeping.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Winter depression: Disease that occurs in people who have little to no sunlight in winter.
- Nicotine withdrawal
- Tardive dyskinesia: Involuntary body movements that are seen in patients who use psychiatric or neurological medication for long periods of time. These movements are present mostly in:
- Extremities: Arms or legs
What is jet lag?
Jet Lag is a common disorder that can affect people who are traveling in different time zones. It is a temporary sleep disorder and can cause fatigue, tiredness, lethargy, gastrointestinal problems and difficulty to stay alert. These symptoms are not dangerous, but can disturb your trip affecting your well-being. Fortunately, there are some ways to prevent it and to reduce the effects of Jet Lag. When you are traveling to places with different time zones, your internal clock suffers a disbalance. Your body maintains itself synced with your original time zone instead of adapting to the time zone in your new location.
Which factors can influence Jet Lag?
There are several factors that can impact your internal clock or circadian rythm:
- Sunlight exposure: During the day, the body produces very little melatonin and at night, occurs the opposite, and it is at this time that the body produces the highest amount of melatonin.
- Time or duration of each travel: The less days you have to adjust your body and your sleep wake cycle, it is more probable for you to suffer from jet lag.
- Age: Studies have shown that older people have more difficulty of adjusting their bodies to multiple time zones than younger people, especially children. Children can adjust their body faster to the time zone and the symptoms are less severe.
- Location of travel: It is also more difficult to adapt to the new time zone, when you are traveling eastward. This happens, because it is easier to make your body adjust itself to sleep later, rather than forcing your body to sleep earlier than what is accustomed.
- Altitude: Another factor that can also impact in symptoms of jet lag is the cabin pressure and high altitudes that you suffer while traveling. These factors together with low humidity inside the planes can make the symptoms more severe.
What are the symptoms?
The main symptoms of jet lag are sleep-related. Usually, they start after 12 hours of arriving and can last several days. The most common symptoms are:
- Difficulty to sleep at night and wake up in the day
- Mood changes
- Tiredness and exhaustion
- Concentration and memory problems
- Gastrointestinal problems such as upset stomach and diarrhea
When should you see a doctor?
Usually, the symptoms of jet lag are temporary and mild in severity. However, if you are a frequent traveler and have severe symptoms it is recommend to see your GP.
How to prevent Jet Lag? How can I reduce the symptoms?
In order to prevent jet lag or at least reduce the symptoms, there are some basic steps and some tips, that you can follow:
- Try to choose flights in which you will be able to arrive in the early morning. Doing this, you will be able to stay awake until the time to go to bed in the current time zone;
- Try to arrive to your destination a few days before any important event or meeting you have. Doing this, your body will have more time to adjust to the new time zone;
- Try to avoid alcohol and caffeine the day before you travel. These drinks can make the jet lag symptoms worsen because they can interfere in your natural clock preventing you to sleep;
- In the previous days before traveling, try to sleep gradually some hours later or earlier depending on the time zone of your destination. Doing this will help you adjust to the new time zone that you are traveling.
- Try not to eat a lot of meat, exercise, or use electronic gadgets, the previous night before going to sleep the day before you travel. Doing this will help you rest better and have an adequate energy level to cope with the time zone differences;
- Try to have plenty of rest the previous days before your trip. Doing this will decrease the symptoms of jet lag;
- Try to drink more water, recent studies have shown that drinking a proper amount of water helps your body maintain itself hydrated, helping you reduce the symptoms of jet lag.
What should you do while traveling?
- Try to sleep in the airplane if it is nighttime through your destination. If it is necessary, use headphones, earplugs and eye masks to reduce the noise and light. If it is daytime in your destination, try not to sleep, even if you are really tired;
- Try to drink plenty of water and avoid caffeine and alcohol. Caffeine and alcohol makes you dehydrated worsening the symptoms of jet lag.
What should you do after traveling?
- Try to regulate your normal sleep cycle as fast as you can;
- Set the alarm to avoid oversleeping; Studies show that sleeping more than 6-8 hours will not help you recover the lack of sleep you had the previous days.
- If you are really tired, take a nap for maximum 20-30 minutes. This will help you to adjust to the new time zone and will not interfere in your normal nighttime sleep
- Try to expose yourself to natural sunlight to adjust easier to your new location. Sun is one of the most important factors, that can influence your body´s circadian rhythm. If you are traveling eastward, be sure to expose yourself to the morning sun. This way, you’ll be able to adjust to the new time zone.
- If you are traveling westward, expose yourself to the night light, which can help you to adjust to the time for the new location because of the melatonin level production.
Are there any special precautions to be taken while using this medication?
- Work related: There are certain precautions to be taken into consideration while taking Circadin 2 mg. Circadian should be used with caution in patients who drive or work with heavy machinery since it may cause drowsiness.
- Autoimmune diseases: People who suffer from autoimmune diseases are recommended not to use this medication since there is no clinical research made in patients who suffer these type of diseases.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There are no clinical studies made of the effects of melatonin in pregnant women and unborn children. Therefore it is not recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding to take this medication.
- Allergies: People who are known to suffer from allergic reactions to any of the components of Circadin 2 mg should avoid this medication.
Are there medicines that interact with Circadin 2 mg?
Certain medications may either increase the melatonin levels in plasma or decrease it, so should be taken with precaution or avoided.
- Nicotine: cigarette smocking
- Estrogens such as hormone replacement therapy or contraceptive pills
- Quinolones: Type of antibiotic.
Are there other treatments that can be used as well?
Jet Lag is not a serious disorder and sometimes it is not necessary to have a treatment. However, there are some options that are available that will help you to be able to do your daily tasks. Make sure to include these activities or tips during your trip:
- Sunshine and light therapy: as mentioned above, night or sunlight can help you adjust your body clock and reduce the symptoms;
- Sleeping tablets: They may be useful if you are having trouble sleeping (insomnia). Most of these medicines, require a prescription from a doctor. It is always good to talk to your doctor, because they can have side effects and you need to take it just if the symptoms are severe and for a short period of time;
- One study has found that if you avoid eating while you are normally hungry, rather eating at the correct time of the new time zone, will help your body speed up the process and adjust itself faster to the new time zone;
There is no way to avoid jet lag completely, but following the tips and basic steps mentioned above, will help you reduce the effects and will help you enjoy your next trip.
How should Circadin 2 mg be taken?
There are different suggested dosages depending on the disease that is being treated. Your GP will instruct you the correct dosage to use accordingly. For jet lag, it can be used in two ways, depending on what direction you are traveling to.
- Eastbound travel: People who travel eastbound should take from 0.5 to 5 mg orally (2 mg or 1 tablet as recommended dosage) once day at “sleeping time” or before the flight followed by 0.5 to 5 mg orally once a day at night.
- Westbound travel: People who travel westbound should take the recommended dose of 0.5 to 5 mg (2 mg or 1 tablet as recommended dosage) orally once a day at night when they have reached the new changed time zone.
How long can Circadin 2 mg be used?
The recommended dosage for jet lag is for 4 days, if your sleeping problems or your circadian rhythm has not been adjusted in those days, you can take this medication for no more than thirteen weeks.
Is there a risk of overdose while using Circadin 2 mg?
Circadin has been reported to provoke drowsiness therefore overdose cases have been reported. Somnolence in mild to moderate severity has been observed. If you or someone you know has taken more of the recommended dose and have unwanted effects such as the stated below, be sure to seek professional help.
Can children use this medication?
There are no studies made of Circadin 2 mg in children under the age of 18 years of age, therefore it is not recommended for them to use it.
Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking the medicine and contact your doctor immediately:
Uncommon: (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)
- Chest pain
Rare: (may ffect up to 1 in 1000 people)
- Loss of consciousness or fainting
- Severe chest pain due to angina
- Feeling your heartbeat
- Visual impairment
- Blurred vision
- Vertigo (a feeling of dizziness or “spinning”)
- Presence of red blood cells in the urine
- Reduced number of white blood cells in the blood
- Reduced blood platelets, which increases risk of bleeding or bruising
If you experience any of the following non-serious side effects contact your doctor and/or seek medical advice:
Uncommon: (may affect up to 1 in 100 people): Irritability, nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, abnormal dreams, nightmares, anxiety, migraine, headache, lethargy (tiredness, lack of energy), restlessness associated with increased activity, dizziness, tiredness, high blood pressure, upper abdominal pain, indigestion, mouth ulceration, dry mouth, nausea, changes in the composition of your blood which could cause yellowing of the skin or eyes, inflammation of the skin, night sweats, itching, rash, dry skin, pain in extremities, menopausal symptoms, feeling of weakness, excretion of glucose in the urine, excess proteins in the urine, abnormal liver function and weight increase.
The Patient Information Leaflet (PIL) is the leaflet included in the pack with a medicine. It is written for patients and gives information about taking or using a medicine. It is possible that the leaflet in your medicine pack may differ from the PDF-version from this website because it may have been updated since your medicine was packaged or the medicine is from another brand.